What is Blood Cancer

What you need to know about Blood Cancer

What is blood cancer?

When cancer starts developing in the blood-forming tissues, it can lead to blood cancer. Blood forming issues red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, and even bone marrow. When the growth of abnormal blood cells blows out of proportion in the body, it can hamper the functionality of blood cells. Blood cancer starts with the reduction in the production of infection-fighting cells and even new blood cells. Most of the blood cancers are hematologic cancers which means it starts in the bone marrow and eventually spreads in the body.

India gets approximately 8 Lakhs of new cancer cases every year. Out of which 70,000-80,000 are blood cancer cases. India reports 3rd highest cases of blood cancer every year after the US and China.

Types of Blood Cancer?

There are two main verticals of blood cancer. However, these three can be further subcategorized. 

  1. Leukemia:

    A type of blood cancer that originates in a person’s bone marrow and blood. This is the most common type of blood cancer. When the body starts creating more abnormal white blood cells than required, it starts interfering with the ability of the bone marrow to generate red blood cells and platelets.

  2. i) Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma:

    This type of blood cancer starts developing from cells called lymphocytes in the lymphatic system. Lymphocytes are a subset of white blood cells that helps the human body fight external and internal infections.

    ii) Hodgkin Lymphoma:

    Hodgkin Lymphoma is caused when the lymphatic system starts producing abnormal lymphocytes called Reed-Sternberg cells.

Causes of Blood Cancer

While there are no proven specifics on the cause of blood cancer, there are some definite factors that play a huge role:

  1. Alcohol:

    Occasional drinking does not hamper your health. But excessive consumption of alcohol can make your immune system weak. It can also obstruct the production of new cells in the bone marrow. 

  2. Tobacco:

    Tobacco is a cancer-causing element. Intake of tobacco in any form can cause cancer. Tobacco weakens the immune system and can alter the person’s DNA making them susceptible to a number of diseases and cancers.

  3. Genetic:

    If you have a family history of hematological diseases, you are prone to blood cancer.

Symptoms of Blood Cancer

Blood cancer patients can have the following symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Headaches
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Shortness of breath
  • Rashes on Skin
  • Itchy skin
  • Night sweats
  • Bone/joint pain
  • Abdominal pain
  • Sudden unexplained weight loss
  • Frequent infections
  • Swelling in lymph nodes of the neck, underarms, or groin

Treatment of Blood Cancer

Treatment of blood cancer can depend on several factors. It majorly depends on age, speed of the cancer development, location of cancer, and the type of cancer. However, there are some commonly followed treatments.

  1. Stem Cell Transplant:

    Stem cells are present in the umbilical cord, bone marrow, and circulating blood. In stem cell transplants, healthy blood-forming stem cells are extracted from the donor and infused in the patient’s blood. 

  2. Chemotherapy:

    Chemotherapy is one of the most common treatments of cancer. This includes introducing anticancer drugs in the body to halt the development of cancerous cells. In some cases, chemotherapy is required after the stem cell transplant.

  3. Radiation Therapy:

    Radiations are used to destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy can also be done for relieving pain relief of the patients. At times, radiation therapy is done before stem cell transplants.

Blood Cancer falls under the Hematology department. Dr. S.K Gupta at Hematology and BMT Institute International is one of the best hematologists in India. His expertise and knowledge in blood, bone marrow-related disorders are unmatched. He possesses experience of 15 years and believes timely diagnosis, proper guidance, and effective treatment are the foundations of the battle with blood cancer.

Hematology and BMT Institute International is well known in India. The team of experts specializes in hematology or blood-related diseases. The clinic is located in Hyderabad and envisions accessible and reliable medical treatments.

Multiple Sclerosis and Its Effects

Multiple Sclerosis and Its Effects

What is Multiple Sclerosis?

Many people would be unaware of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and its effects. Multiple Sclerosis or MS is a long-lasting disease that can affect your brain, spinal cord, and the optic nerves in your eyes. Vision, balance, muscle control, and other essential bodily functions can be impaired under MS. For everyone who has this disorder or disease, the effects are often different. Some people don’t need treatment because they have mild symptoms while others are going to have trouble getting around and doing daily chores. The cause of MS is still unknown, but we know that the Myelin Sheath in the Central Nervous System (CNS), which covers around the nerve fibers, gets affected. For the transmission of nerve impulses through nerve fibers, Myelin is necessary. If Myelin damage is slight, nerve impulses travel with a small number of disruptions; however, if the damage is massive and if the Myelin is replaced by scar tissue, the nerve impulses may be completely interrupted, and the nerve fibers themselves may be damaged.

The term “Multiple Sclerosis” is derived from this process, as it occurs in several places in the nervous system, and Sclerosis (scars) – the hardened patches of scar tissue – forms over the damaged Myelin.

MS varies significantly from individual to individual, and in the severity and the course of the disease. Your doctor cannot predict at the time of diagnosis what course the illness might take and how you will be affected in the next five or ten years. Fortunately, there are specific relapsing treatments — MS remittance — and some may be helpful for people who are still having relapses with secondary-progressive MS. Moreover, as they arise, much can be done to treat specific symptoms.

Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis

Symptoms such as extreme fatigue, lack of coordination, weakness, tingling, sensation impairment, vision problems, bladder problems, cognitive impairment, and mood changes can be caused by Multiple Sclerosis. Remember that while many different symptoms can be experienced in MS, all of the symptoms listed are highly unlikely to be experienced.


Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis

Diagnosing MS can be difficult, as its symptoms can be the same as many other nerve disorders. If your doctor is in doubt, he’ll want you to see a specialist called a neurologist, who treats the brain and nervous system. The doctor will ask you about your medical history and will check your brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves for key signs of nerve damage.

There is no single test that can prove you have MS. While checking, your doctor will use a couple of different tests like:

  • Blood tests to rule out diseases that cause similar symptoms, such as Lyme disease and AIDS   
  • Tests to see how well your nerves are working, check your balance, coordination, vision, and other functions. 
  • A test called an MRI that produces detailed images of the structures in your body.
  • Analysis of a liquid called Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) that cushions your brain and spinal cord. In CSF, people with MS usually have particular proteins. 
  • Tests that measure the electrical activity in your brain (called Evoked Potential). 
  • OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography) is used to identify changes in the retina that may warn of atrophy of the brain.


Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis

Right now, there seems to be no cure for Multiple Sclerosis, but an autologous stem transplant can be a favorable treatment. Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) or autonomous bone marrow transplant can provide progression-free survival in MS (Multiple Sclerosis) for a long period of time.  In Autologous Stem Cell Transplant, healthy blood stem cells are extracted from the body to treat or replace the diseased/damaged bone marrow. It offers an edge over stem cells from donors as it avoids the possibility of incompatibility between the donor’s and receiver’s blood stem cells. 

Dr. S.K. Gupta is a renowned Hematologist who has experience in treating blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen disorders. He strongly believes that, even in life-threatening disorders, early diagnosis, proper guidance, and support are the cornerstones of fruitful results. Adequate monitoring of the condition of the patient, improving the morale of both the patient and the family, are vital steps in reducing morbidity and mortality during treatment, which he and his strong support team take care of at a personal level. At the same time, he runs several awareness camps in the community for all the patients and training sessions for his staff.  Looking for a hospital for Multiple Sclerosis?
Look no further, Hematology and BMT Institute International is your solution to all blood-related and non-blood-related diseases. 

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