The Basics of Hematology, Common Blood Disorders, & the Role of Hematologists

Medicine is a field that has several branches and many of which are not popular with the common man. Hematology is one of them. To understand this field, we must first begin with its origin. It is important to know whence we came, so we know where we are going.

History of Hematology

The history of Hematology dates back to 1600 BC when Egyptians found bone cancer in mummies and manuscripts. A significant advancement in blood research arrived in 1642 when Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope and detected blood cells. In 1770, the ‘Father of Hematology’ William Hewson created blood-clotting properties and expressed his understanding of leukocytes, or white blood cells. It was not until 1818 that James Blundell successfully performed the first documented blood transfusion between humans. Still, the world would have to wait for another hundred years until Reuben Ottenberg used blood typing to conduct transfusions and established the universality of type O blood.

Overview Of Hematology

What is Hematology?

There have been many inventions in the field of medicine, and even then, the concept of blood-related disorders is uncommon. There are many disorders that are related to blood but we are usually not able to judge whether the issue is in the organs or the blood. We do not know which doctor to consult when faced with certain symptoms.

Blood makes up a large portion of the human body. It has long been recognized as essential for surviving and as a component of the life force itself. It is a body fluid that contains components like red blood cells (commonly better understood as Hemoglobin), white blood cells (Leucocytes), plasma, and platelets. Blood runs through veins, arteries, and capillaries with a mixture of 55% plasma and 45% blood cells. Blood cells are formed in the stem cells of bone marrow. (A bone marrow is a spongy tissue inside your hip and thigh bones.) 

The role of blood in the human body involves the transfer of vital resources throughout the body, such as oxygen and nutrients. The stem cells which normally reside in bone marrow develop or create or produce red blood cells that help in carrying oxygen through the body; white blood cells which help in fighting infections; and platelets which help in bleeding control. The circulation of blood in the body also helps in regulating water flow and acidity in the body. 

Blood disorders may affect many of the body’s functions, such as the lymphatic system, a network of waste-clearing tissues, and organs. Heart diseases often arise from bone marrow complications. Hematology is aimed at explaining how these complications occur, how they affect the safety of an individual, and how they can be treated. 


Hematology can be defined as the study of blood and its components, the study of bone marrow a source of blood components, the study of lymph nodes a training center for blood components, and also the study of the spleen which function like graveyard storage of blood components. It covers the diagnosis, treatment, prevention of all these 4 organs disorders which can be cancerous/malignant like different forms of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma,  or non-cancerous like anemia, sickle-cell anemia, thalassemia, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, ITP, TTP, AIHA, Bleeding disorders (hemophilia), clotting disorders (DVT, Young stroke) etcetera. 

Diseases & Symptoms

If a person encounters any of the following symptoms then it’s time to visit a hematologist. Symptoms include weakness, giddiness,  shortness of breath, easy bruising, excess sweating, persistent back pain, recurrent infections, persistent fever, unintentional weight loss, nodular swelling neck, armpit, groin area, unexplained bleeding or clotting, unexplained high/low hemoglobin, unexplained high/low white blood cells and unexplained high/low platelets. Even if a patient is requiring or received any blood, platelets, or plasma transfusion then also he should visit a hematologist/ Hemato Oncologist to identify the root cause at an early stage. These symptoms could be the indicators of disease like anemia, sickle cell disease, thalassemia, malaria, bleeding disorders, blood cancer, thrombosis, and hypercoagulability. One should visit a hematologist if the mentioned symptoms persist.

Who is a Hematologist?

A hematologist is a person who treats these diseases. They operate in blood centers, anatomy labs, and private clinics. There are many specialists in this field of medicine. Specialists in this field of medicine concentrate their practice on either one of the areas of hematology.

A hematologist might have one of the following specialties:


  • Hemoglobinopathy – specializes in the study of lack of hemoglobin in the blood which can cause sickle cell disease, thalassemia, or other conditions.
  • Hematological Malignancy – focuses on the detection and management of blood cancers.
  • Anemias: studies the deficiency of hemoglobin or red blood cells.
  • Coagulopathy: studies bleeding disorder; this represents the capacity of the body to create blood clots.


Hematologists are qualified to handle blood and blood-related organs such as lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and lymphoid tissues. Suppose any symptoms related to blood diseases are experienced; a hematologist would ask you to take some tests such as full blood count test, white blood cell test, platelets, clotting screens, blood enzyme test, bone marrow biopsy, blood transfusions, and mono screening.

Many blood disorders are life-threatening, which is why hematologists work so hard at their job. Long gone were the days when we used to fear not having a proper cure for certain diseases. At Hematology and BMT Institute International, we specialize in all kinds of blood tests and treatments of blood disorders and make sure that you receive the best treatment with personalized care and comfort with friendly doctors at less expense.

Are you considering visiting a hematologist? Dr. S.K Gupta, Gold medalist,  DM – Clinical Hematology and BMT (AIIMS, Delhi) at Hematology and BMT Institute International specializes in hemato-oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation procedures.

To know more visit our website https://hematologybmt.com/ or contact us: +91 7780297660 or +91 9390447254.


patient testimonial


Hematology and BMT Institute International is a Hospital that specialises in the treatment of all forms of blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen disorders, cancer and non cancer disorders providing a wide variety of programs spanning from inpatient day care clinics, a blood bank and laboratory to an outpatient facility. HBII has successfully treated many patients, and Mir Mohammed Shoaib Ali is one of them. This is his story.

A child and his journey towards recovery

Mir Mohammed Shoaib Ali was diagnosed with cancer at a very young age in October 2019. It all started with a mild cough, cold and fever. Even after taking a lot of antibiotics and iron supplements, there was no difference in his health condition. After several CBC tests, it was revealed that the child had blood cancer. Both the parents were shattered but, despite the setback, they mustered the courage to assess the situation further in terms of the treatment, the procedure, and the risks factors behind it. Even after visiting a lot of doctors, they were not satisfied with the suggested course of treatment. It was after some research that they finally came to know about Hematology and BMT Institute International and met Dr S. K. Gupta. 

Dr. Gupta sat them down patiently and explained to them the treatment in detail; its phases, the procedures, medications, the possible outcomes of chemotherapy and its side effects. He explained to them that the treatment duration would be difficult for the family, and stressed on the measures they could take to overcome the difficult time. 

Firstly, the doctor recommended doing all the blood tests like CBC, LFT, RFT, CUE, blood and urine cultures, CRP, Serology and immunology test, PT, INR, and aPTT.  He then started giving the child antibiotics through IV-fluids to overcome the growth of the disease. The doctor cleared the bacterial infection from the blood and on 14th October advised the patient and his family to go for chemo-port installation procedure along with CSF/body fluid analysis for hematopoietic malignancy.

During the first phase of treatment, the doctor scheduled the Induction therapy where the child was kept on VCR, DOXO and IT-MTX in his protocol with intensive care and treatment for two months. In this time, the patient’s blasts disappeared (from 72% to 0%), haemoglobin level increased, and most importantly, TLC counts increased to 9.611 from 1.6/ml. 

All the necessary precautions and measures were taken to make sure that the boy would have the strength to overcome cancer. He conducted regular checkups, blood tests and also charted out a diet plan which was rich in proteins, so that the kid would have the strength during chemotherapy sessions.  Even during the COVID-19 pandemic, Dr Gupta successfully treated the child without causing any sort of complications. 

There was a huge difference in the boy’s health after he started receiving treatment from Dr S K Gupta. The ecstatic mother said,  

I would recommend Dr S K Gupta sir, who is highly experienced, thoroughly professional and an expert in treating blood-related disorders. I must say he is one of the top hematologists in the world.” 

Dr S.K.Gupta is highly experienced in treating blood related disorders. He specialises in treating blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen disorders. He is very compassionate towards his patients and their families. He listens to all queries patiently, and provides knowledge in the most simpler terms. He is one of the renowned hematologists in India who practices at the Hematology and BMT Institute International (HBII) in Hyderabad. 

HBII is one of the leading hematology and bone marrow transplant hospitals that offers all treatments related to blood disorders. The hemato-oncologists at HBII are well-versed in stem cell transplantation as well. Nurses and support staff are qualified to work with people of all ages suffering from blood disorders. HBII  provides world-class hemato-oncology treatment with a high success rate. The hospital is equipped with state-of-the-art equipment and manned by the trained and dedicated staff. 

If you or anyone in your social circle suffer from any symptoms that indicate blood-related disorders, then contact us. Call +91 77802 97660 or visit the website to know more: https://hematologybmt.com/


Peidatrics | Children’s BMT in Hyderabad

What is a Pediatric | Children’s Hematologist/Oncologist?

If your child or teens are facing some kind of blood disease or cancer, our Hematology and BMT Doctors are fully experienced pediatric hematologists/oncologists who have the experience and qualifications to evaluate and treat your child or teen. The Best care of children or teens with blood diseases and cancer is learned from advanced training and experience in practice. Pediatric hematologists/oncologists treat children and teens from birth through young adulthood.

Children and teens are not just small adults. Their bodies are growing and have unique medical needs. They usually express their concerns differently than adults do. They cannot always answer medical questions and are not always able to be patient and cooperative.

Pediatric hematologists/oncologists know how to examine and treat young children and teens in a way that makes them relaxed and cooperative. Most pediatric hematologists/oncologists’ offices are arranged and decorated with children and teens in mind.

Ours internationally recognized pediatric hematologists/oncologists and hematopathologists are diagnosing and treating all types of pediatric blood cancers.

To find the best pediatrician or Pediatrics Bone Marrow Transplant in Hyderabad click here.

Symptoms of Leukemia

What are the Symptoms and Signs of Leukemia?

Many types of leukemia produce no obvious symptoms within the early stages. Eventually, symptoms may include any of the following:

  • Anemia and related symptoms, like fatigue, pallor, and a general feeling of illness.
  • A tendency to bruise or bleed simply, as well as harm from the gums or nose, or blood within the stool or urine.
  • Susceptibility to infections like a sore throat or bronchial pneumonia, which can be in the midst of a headache, inferior fever, mouth sores, or skin rash.
  • Swollen humor nodes, generally within the throat, armpits, or groin.
  • Loss of appetite and weight.
  • Discomfort below the left lower ribs (caused by a swollen spleen).
  • Very high white blood corpuscle counts might lead to visual issues because of retinal hemorrhage, the ringing of the ears (tinnitus), mental standing changes, prolonged erection (priapism), and stroke.

Call Your Doctor regarding leukemia If:

Leukemia symptoms are often vague and not specific. You may overlook early leukemia symptoms because they may resemble symptoms of the flu and other common illnesses.

Rarely, leukemia may be discovered during blood tests for some other condition.

Book an Appointment with your doctor if you have any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you.

Request an Appointment at Hematology and BMT

Best Hematologist in Kukatpally

Best Hematologist in Kukatpally

Dr. S.K. Gupta is one of the Best Hematologist in Kukatpally. He is a renowned Hematologist in Kukatpally, Hyderabad with extensive experience of over 15 years in the field of Hematology. Moreover, proper monitoring of the patient’s conditions, boosting the morale of both patient as well as family

Hematology is the study of blood disorders and blood. Hematologists and hematopathologists are extremely trained healthcare suppliers who specialize in diseases of the blood and blood components. These include bone marrow cells and blood. medical specialty tests will facilitate diagnose anemia, infection, blood-clotting disorders, hemophilia, and cancer. 

Best Hematologist in KukatpallyAlthough hematologists work at the side of specialists from varied medical and surgical specialties, the medical specialty is most frequently joined with the medical specialty. Hematologists and oncologists work along to care for adults and youngsters with cancers of the blood and bone marrow, including malignant neoplastic disease and lymphoma.

Some of the most common Hematology symptoms include:

  • fever/chills
  • persistent fatigue or weakness
  • frequent or severe infections
  • excessive sweating, especially at night; and bone pain or tenderness.
  • losing weight without trying
  • swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen
  • easy bleeding or bruising
  • recurrent nosebleeds
  • tiny red spots on the skin, known as petechiae

Some square measure chronic and long but once more don’t have an effect on longevity. Some samples of these benign disorders are:

  • Anemia because of chronic disease
  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Autoimmune anemia, an immune-mediated disease inflicting a low red blood cell count
  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), an immune-mediated disease causing a low platelet count
  • Low blood counts not due to medications however associated with underlying medical conditions, for example, anemia of chronic sickness, or low living substance count secondary to liver disease
  • Thalassemia (mild)
  • Hemophilia (mild)
  • Von Willebrand’s disease
  • Blood clots (not life-threatening)
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (“MGUS”), a disorder of plasma cells inflicting abnormal proteins within the blood)

Other disorders of the blood are a lot of serious in this they’ll cause chronic health problem or square measure life-threatening:

  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Hemophilia (severe)
  • Recurrent blood clots (thrombophilia)
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myeloproliferative diseases (characterized by excessive production of blood cells within the bone marrow):

  • Polycythemia vera-too several red cells
  • Essential thrombocythemia-too several platelets
  • Primary myelofibrosis-excess fibrous or connective tissue within the marrow
  • Chronic myelogenous cancer of the blood (CML)-excessive WBC production inflicting cancer of the blood Acute leukemias.

Lymphocyte disorders

  • Lymphoma-Hodgkin’s sickness
  • Chronic leukemia
  • Lymphoma-non-Hodgkin’s

Plasma cell disorders

  • Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia
  • Multiple malignant tumors
  • Heavy chain sickness


Bone Marrow Transplant Cost in Hyderabad

Bone Marrow Transplant Cost in Hyderabad

Bone Marrow Transplant Cost in Hyderabad is less than one-tenth of the price as compared to many other developed countries. The Bone Marrow Transplant Cost in Hyderabad is in the range of 28K to 40K USD in some of the Best Hospitals in Hyderabad for bone marrow transplant.

Here are some Country, and their cost of Bone marrow transplant in dollar and INR 


$4,00,000 (INR 2,52,00,000)


$5,00,500 (INR 3,15,00,000)


$3,50,000 (INR 2,20,00,000)


$2,25,000 (INR 1,41,75,000) 


$1,00,000 (INR 63,50,000) 

Source : Google Thank you 

Bone Marrow Transplant Cost in Hyderabad

This includes the cost of the procedure, operation theatre, routine standard medicines, anesthesia, bedside procedures, surgeon’s fees, food and room charges for the patient etc.

Bone marrow transplant is a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells. Bone marrow is the soft, fatty tissue inside your bones. The bone marrow produces blood cells. Stem cells are immature cells in the bone marrow that give rise to all of your different blood cells.

Bone Marrow Transplant Cost in Hyderabad

Bone Marrow Transplant is also called a stem cell transplant, Bone Marrow Transplant is used to treat some types of cancers. 

Our experienced and dedicated multidisciplinary doctors are providing Best Bone Marrow Transplantation in Hyderabad, India.

Best Hematologist in Kukatpally

Spleen Specialist in Hyderabad

Splenectomy could be a surgical treatment during which the spleen is far from the body of the patient. This procedure is usually performed for patients that have enlarged spleens, busted spleens, or sure cancers. In laparoscopic cutting out, the medico makes little incisions within the abdomen to guide little cameras, instruments, and devices into the body so as to look at and treat the spleen.

Spleen Specialist in Hyderabad

Spleen Specialist in Hyderabad


Dr. S.K. Gupta is one of the Best Spleen Specialist in Hyderabad. He is a renowned Hematologist in India with extensive experience of over 15 years in the field of Hematology.

The medico will then perform the removal during a minimally-invasive manner. In some cases, like that of the busted spleen, the doctor may perform open surgery, and build an oversized incision within the abdominal space to directly access the spleen. In partial cutting out, solely a part of the spleen is removed.

Splenectomy could be an operation during which the spleen is off from the body of the patient. This procedure is mostly performed for patients that have enlarged spleens, burst spleens, or bound cancers. In laparoscopic cutting out, the operating surgeon makes tiny incisions within the abdomen to guide tiny cameras, instruments, and devices into the body so as to look at and treat the spleen. 

The operating surgeon will then perform the removal in a minimally-invasive manner. In some cases, like that of the burst spleen, the doctor would possibly perform open surgery and build an outsized incision within the abdominal space to directly access the spleen. In partial cutting out, solely a part of the spleen is removed.

Spleen Specialist in Hyderabad

Spleen Specialist in Hyderabad


  • No symptoms in some cases
  • Pain or fullness in the left upper abdomen that may spread to the left shoulder
  • Easy bleeding
  • Anemia
  • Feeling full without eating or after eating only a small amount from the enlarged spleen pressing on your stomach
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent infections

Risk factors

Spleen at any age, but certain groups are at higher risk, including:

  • People who have Gaucher’s disease, Niemann-Pick disease, and several other inherited metabolic disorders affecting the liver and spleen.
  • Children and young adults with infections, such as mononucleosis.
  • People who live in or travel to areas where malaria is common.
Clotting Disorder Specialist in Hyderabad

Clotting Disorder Specialist in Hyderabad

Dr. S.K. Gupta is one of the Best Clotting Disorder Specialist in Hyderabad. He is a renowned Hematologist in India with extensive experience of over 15 years in the field of Hematology. Moreover, proper monitoring of the patient’s conditions, boosting the morale of both patient as well as family

Clotting Disorder Specialist in HyderabadWhat is a Clotting Disorder?

Hematology and BMT Institute International describes a group of clotting disorders in which there is an increased tendency for excessive blood clotting. Clotting disorders can be due to inherited genetic abnormalities that are associated with a life-long increased tendency to clot.

Hematology and BMT Institute International provide comprehensive care for people with clotting and bleeding disorders. Hematology and BMT Institute treatment centers are staffed by a range of healthcare providers, including hematologists, nurses, nutritionists, Leukemia,  who work as a team to address the needs of persons with clotting disorders.

Hematology and BMT Institute International help persons with clotting disorders better understand and manage their medical condition.

Clotting Disorder Specialist in Hyderabad

Clotting Disorder Specialist in Hyderabad

Signs and Symptoms of Clotting Problems?

However, symptoms of a deep vein thrombosis are:

  • Soreness or pain in an arm or leg
  • Coolness or warmth over an area of an arm or leg
  • Red, pale, or bluish skin color
  • Swelling in an arm or legs
  • Fainting
  • A fast heartbeat
  • Trouble breathing
  • Chest pain
  • Coughing

Some of the clotting disorders are:

These are common blood Clotting Disorders

Factor V Leiden:

This inherited disorder increases the risk of deep vein thrombosis. These are clots that appear deep in the body, usually in the thigh or lower leg. This disorder also increases complications with pregnancy like a miscarriage. It is the most common inherited clotting disorder and happens most often in children of European descent. Although many people inherit this abnormality, most never have an abnormal blood clot.

Prothrombin thrombophilia:

This clotting disorder is the second most common type. It also increases the risk of deep vein thrombosis and pregnancy complications. These include slowed fetal development and miscarriage. It is also most likely to occur in those of European descent. Only a small percentage of people with this disorder will ever have an abnormal blood clot.

Protein C deficiency:

The severity of this condition varies from mild, which is most common, to severe. Most people who have it will have no symptoms or simply have an increased risk for deep vein thrombosis during recovery from surgery or periods of immobility. Babies born with the severe form of this condition, however, can develop tiny blood clots throughout their bodies that prevent blood flow and may cause fatal tissue death.

Protein S deficiency:

The severity of this condition also varies. As with protein C deficiency, most people who have it will have no symptoms or simply have increased risk for deep vein thrombosis during recovery from surgery or periods of immobility. But those born with the severe form of this condition can develop tiny blood clots that may lead to fatal tissue death.

Antithrombin deficiency:

This inherited disorder significantly increases the chance of developing abnormal blood clots. About half of those with this disorder will develop at least one clot, usually after adolescence. These clots may cause deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.

Pancytopenia specialist in Hyderabad

Pancytopenia Specialist in Hyderabad

Dr. S.K. Gupta is one of the Best Pancytopenia Specialists in Hyderabad. He is a renowned Hematologist in India with extensive experience of over 15 years in the field of Hematology. Moreover, proper monitoring of the patient’s condition, boosting the morale of both patient as well family are also key steps in reducing the morbidity and mortality during the treatment which Dr. S.K. Gupta takes care at a personal level along with his strong supportive team. At the same time, he is running a lot of awareness camps at the community level for the same to benefit all age groups of patients ranging from new-born to elderly.

What is Pancytopenia?

Pancytopenia refers to the combination of anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Causes may be due to bone marrow failure, bone marrow infiltration, ineffective hematopoiesis or peripheral pooling/destruction. A bone marrow aspirate is usually required to establish the diagnosis. Aetiologies of pancytopenia vary from one geographical region to others.

Various etiological factors have been implicated in the causation of pancytopenia. Major factors include a reduction in blood cell production, infiltration of bone marrow (BM) by abnormal cells, suppression of BM, ineffective hematopoiesis with cell destruction, antibody-mediated destruction of cells, and sequestration of cells in the reticuloendothelial system. Treatment and prognosis of patients with pancytopenia are governed by the cause and severity of the underlying disease.

Pancytopenia specialist in Hyderabad

Pancytopenia is caused by various conditions. There are various predisposing factors for these anemias like alcoholism, hypothyroidism, self-limiting illnesses, puberty, pregnancy.

Therefore it is necessary to treat such cases with iron and/or vitamin B12/folate, to repeat hemogram after a few weeks and if necessary further evaluation with an invasive procedure like bone marrow may be considered.

There are other treatable causes like dengue, malaria, enteric fever, and TB. In such cases, pancytopenia resolves over sometime after etiology specific treatment is given. However, the bone marrow becomes necessary if there is no improvement or there are signs which are suggestive of severe diseases like leukemia, MDS, etc.


lymph nodes specialist doctors in Hyderabad

Lymph Nodes Specialist Doctors in Hyderabad

Dr. S.K. Gupta is one of the top Lymph Nodes Specialist Doctor in Hyderabad. He is a renowned Hematologist in India with extensive experience of over 15 years in the field of Hematology.

Swollen lymph nodes usually occur as a result of exposure to bacteria or viruses. When swollen lymph nodes are caused by an infection, this is known as lymphadenitis. Rarely, swollen lymph nodes are caused by cancer.

When your lymph nodes first swell, you might notice:

  1. Swollen lymph nodes that maybe the size of a pea or kidney bean, or even larger
    Tender and painful lymph nodes
  2. Depending on the cause of your swollen lymph nodes, other signs, and symptoms.
  3. General swelling of lymph nodes throughout your body — which may indicate an infection, such as HIV or mononucleosis, or an immune disorder, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis
  4. Swollen limb, possibly indicating lymph system blockage caused by swelling in a lymph node too far under your skin to feel
  5. Hardened, fixed, rapidly growing nodes, indicating a possible tumor Fever Runny nose, sore throat, fever and other indications of an upper respiratory infection Night sweats

The most common cause of swollen lymph nodes is an Infection, particularly a viral infection, such as the common cold. However, there are other types of infections, including Parasitic and Bacterial, and other possible causes of swollen lymph nodes.

lymph nodes specialist doctors in Hyderabad

            lymph nodes specialist doctors in Hyderabad

They include:

Common infections:

  • Strep throat
  • Measles
  • Ear infections
  • Infected (abscessed) tooth
  • Mononucleosis
  • Skin or wound infections, such as cellulitis or erysipelas
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) — the virus that causes AIDS
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