A haploidentical bone marrow transplant is performed when the donor exactly matches half of the recipient’s DNA. Haploidentical bone marrow transplant is a type of allogeneic transplant. In an allogeneic transplant, the cells from donors are transplanted in the recipient to suppress the disease-causing cells or elements and restore the immune system of the patient. The key to a successful allogeneic transplant is finding the right donor. In most cases, the donors are the blood relatives of the patient. The match is proved through tissue typing. Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) are the proteins that are used for tissue typing. These proteins are present in white blood cells and tissues. HLA is present almost all over the body. Donors closely matching your HLA or umbilical cord blood can be transplanted. Healthy, blood-forming cells from a half-matched donor are transplanted to replace the unhealthy ones of the recipient. This is a Haploidentical bone marrow transplant. The donor is typically a family member in Haploidentical bone marrow transplant. The donor matches exactly half of the HLA of the donor.
Who can be a haploidentical donor?
The patient’s mother, father, or offspring are half-matched or haploidentical donors. Siblings have a 50% chance of being haploidentical for each other. Parents are always haploidentical to their children. It is highly unlikely for uncles, aunts, and cousins to be half-match of the patient.
Benefits of a haploidentical bone marrow transplant
For patients suffering from rare disorders, haploidentical stem cell transplants are a blessing. It is a boon especially for patients suffering from blood disorders that do not have any cure yet. Since this medical procedure does not need a complete HLA match of the donor’s tissue, it is a treatment option for 70% of the patients suffering from rare and complex disorders. Haploidentical bone marrow transplant gives a chance to live for the patients who do not have an HLA-identical sibling donor.
A half-match donor saves a lot of hassle for the family and doctors. It avoids the need to find an alternative donor who is unrelated to the patient. It also expands the donor pool who are not a complete match for the receiver.
In a bone marrow transplant, the patient’s immune system is wiped out so that the immune system does not reject the donated marrow. It is done to avoid the host -versus- graft effect as the response of the donor immune system can harm the new immune system during the marrow transplant. In haploidentical bone marrow transplant, the bone marrow suppresses the immune system instead of wiping it out. It is viable to perform this procedure on children with benign hematologic disorders if no donors are available with engraftment rates of 70%, durable graft in 67%. The overall survival of haploidentical bone marrow transplant is 60%.
It is generally assumed that the side-effects of a haploidentical transplant are higher than a full-matched transplant if the procedure is performed in a busy institute. In Hematology and BMT Institute International every procedure is performed with precision and patients are given utmost care. Dr. S.K Gupta, the founder of Hematology and BMT Institute International has 15 years of experience and is an expert in Haploidentical bone marrow transplant. He started his medical career as a nursing student and has been trained at various reputed & prestigious healthcare Institutions in India.
If you are looking for a medical institute that provides quality healthcare with utmost dedication and care, head to Hematology and BMT Institute International in Hyderabad. It is one of the most advanced and efficient healthcare centers in India.