Complete Blood Count

A Few Hundred Rupees Test That Can Save You Lakhs

A Series on Prevention, Early Diagnosis, Personalized treatment of Blood and Bone Marrow Disorders.

As we all are aware, in medicine, an early diagnosis and proper guidance is the key to a successful outcome. A good CBC is a very basic but crucial tool in doing so. In my clinical practice, I have seen cases where an early diagnosis of blood cancer is missed and unnecessary expensive investigations are performed, even though the CBC is giving a direct clue to proceed in a very specific direction. At times, blood transfusions are performed where the case could have been managed without it by treating the underlying etiology.

In the western world, the cure rate for cancerous as well as non-cancerous blood and bone marrow disorders is around 80-90%. Though we have access to the best available world-class diagnostic and therapeutic resources, most patients are diagnosed in an advanced stage leading to a less than the desired outcome.

In terms of disease prevention, information is power. Knowing about minor problems the minute they arise gives you the opportunity to change things before they become a major issue. The objective of this article is to guide various aspects of the Complete Blood Count (CBC) such as their components, normal role in our body, their origin, and when to get an expert opinion.

What is Complete Blood Count (CBC)?

A Complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test used to evaluate the overall health condition and detect a wide range of disorders, including anemia, infection, and leukemia.

A complete blood count test measures several components and features of your blood, including:

  • Hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (RBCs).
  • White blood cells (Army or Policeman of our body), which fight infection and have 5 subtypes.
  • Platelets, which help with blood clotting. So, depreciation in platelets can lead to bleeding.

Why is Complete Blood Count (CBC) done?

  • To review your overall health:

    As part of a routine medical examination to monitor your general health and to screen for a variety of disorders, such as anemia or leukemia.

  • To diagnose a medical condition:


    If you’re experiencing weakness, fatigue, fever, inflammation, bruising, or bleeding, a complete blood count may help to diagnose the cause of these signs and symptoms.

  • To monitor medical condition & treatment.

 

How you prepare for Complete Blood Count (CBC)

No special preparation is required before or after sampling. You can return to your usual activities immediately.

CBC is not a definitive test:

A complete blood count is typically not a definitive diagnostic test. Depending on the reason your doctor recommended this test, results outside the normal range may or may not require follow-up. In some cases, if results are significantly above or below the normal ranges, your doctor may refer you to a specialist in blood disorders (hematologist). An expert look into these reports definitely helps in an optimal outcome. 

Keeping copies of your previous lab reports, in order to keep an eye on trends, also provides an edge in preventing and managing diseases in the long-term.

What the results may indicate:

Quantitative (number) abnormality inform about low or high values, which can be indicative of serious underlying bone marrow (production house for CBC) disorders like Cancer, or its failure syndrome such as aplastic anemia. Before making a conclusion, results should be correlated with clinical information like history, and examination of the patient.

Blood Composition

In a nutshell, it can be concluded that a mere blood test is not enough, but its validity, clinical correlation, and further workup, if required, is of utmost importance and can’t be ignored.

Be Alert, Be Aware.

CML Treatment

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Treatment of A 27-Year-Old Woman

“A Couple’s Journey To Achieve A Healthier Life.”

Overview:

Shreya (name changed), a 27-year-old woman barely settled post-marriage, was diagnosed with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML – chronic phase). Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia is a rare type of bone marrow cancer in which the number of white blood cells starts multiplying abnormally.

Problem:

She visited a reputed clinic in Hyderabad for treatment but the improvement in her health was slower than anticipated. The couple (Shreya and her spouse) had a major concern- her inability to bear children on prescribed drugs. These drugs were expected to cause some grave birth defects to the child. The long-term side-effects were not well known either. The couple’s worries worsened when the doctor couldn’t give any assurance for the baby. 

Experience at Hematology BMT Institute International

Luckily, Shreya had minimum side-effects. The couple was looking for a gynecologist & oncologist to make an informed decision. During their search, they came across Dr. S.K. Gupta at Hematology BMT Institute International. According to the couple, Dr. S.K Gupta was very patient and explained Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and its treatment in Layman’s term. Treatment began with Imatinib 400mg. 

“Dr. S.K. Gupta’s expert guidance and support at a personal level during the treatment, has been so effective”, Shreya says. She reached a major molecular response in a little time. 

Dr. Gupta’s advice is backed up by extensive research. He goes a step ahead when it comes to caring for and treating the patients. Dr. S.K Gupta has a patient-friendly nature which helped the couple to come to a decision of having a baby through surrogacy. Dr. Gupta supported the couple throughout their journey to coordinate with the gynecologist. This led to a better understanding of Shreya’s condition by the gynecologist. His involvement gave the couple hope for overcoming this hurdle in their life.

The couple was blessed with a healthy baby girl. Since Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is not hereditary the couple was relieved. The baby’s BCR-ABL (a gene that controls abnormal blood cells into making cancerous proteins) level was sitting stable at zero. The baby is thriving and now 10 months old. 

Patient Condition after CML Treatment at HBII

Shreya is almost completing 5 years of her CML diagnosis. Her CML level is right at the bottom and her white blood cell count is normal. She has fully recovered and is living an eventful life. The couple says that they would always be thankful to Dr. S.K Gupta for supporting them through a very troublesome time of their lives.

Dr. S.K Gupta, the founder of Hematology BMT Institute International is loved by all his patients as he acts not just as a doctor but also as a support system. He is known for providing excellent treatment and treating his patients with love and care. 

Dr. S.K Gupta promotes a healthier lifestyle, regular screenings, and check-ups to avoid getting caught in life-threatening situations. 

 

What is Blood Cancer

What you need to know about Blood Cancer

What is blood cancer?

When cancer starts developing in the blood-forming tissues, it can lead to blood cancer. Blood forming issues red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, and even bone marrow. When the growth of abnormal blood cells blows out of proportion in the body, it can hamper the functionality of blood cells. Blood cancer starts with the reduction in the production of infection-fighting cells and even new blood cells. Most of the blood cancers are hematologic cancers which means it starts in the bone marrow and eventually spreads in the body.

India gets approximately 8 Lakhs of new cancer cases every year. Out of which 70,000-80,000 are blood cancer cases. India reports 3rd highest cases of blood cancer every year after the US and China.

Types of Blood Cancer?

There are two main verticals of blood cancer. However, these three can be further subcategorized. 

  1. Leukemia:

    A type of blood cancer that originates in a person’s bone marrow and blood. This is the most common type of blood cancer. When the body starts creating more abnormal white blood cells than required, it starts interfering with the ability of the bone marrow to generate red blood cells and platelets.

  2. i) Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma:

    This type of blood cancer starts developing from cells called lymphocytes in the lymphatic system. Lymphocytes are a subset of white blood cells that helps the human body fight external and internal infections.

    ii) Hodgkin Lymphoma:

    Hodgkin Lymphoma is caused when the lymphatic system starts producing abnormal lymphocytes called Reed-Sternberg cells.

Causes of Blood Cancer

While there are no proven specifics on the cause of blood cancer, there are some definite factors that play a huge role:

  1. Alcohol:

    Occasional drinking does not hamper your health. But excessive consumption of alcohol can make your immune system weak. It can also obstruct the production of new cells in the bone marrow. 

  2. Tobacco:

    Tobacco is a cancer-causing element. Intake of tobacco in any form can cause cancer. Tobacco weakens the immune system and can alter the person’s DNA making them susceptible to a number of diseases and cancers.

  3. Genetic:

    If you have a family history of hematological diseases, you are prone to blood cancer.

Symptoms of Blood Cancer

Blood cancer patients can have the following symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Headaches
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Shortness of breath
  • Rashes on Skin
  • Itchy skin
  • Night sweats
  • Bone/joint pain
  • Abdominal pain
  • Sudden unexplained weight loss
  • Frequent infections
  • Swelling in lymph nodes of the neck, underarms, or groin

Treatment of Blood Cancer

Treatment of blood cancer can depend on several factors. It majorly depends on age, speed of the cancer development, location of cancer, and the type of cancer. However, there are some commonly followed treatments.

  1. Stem Cell Transplant:

    Stem cells are present in the umbilical cord, bone marrow, and circulating blood. In stem cell transplants, healthy blood-forming stem cells are extracted from the donor and infused in the patient’s blood. 

  2. Chemotherapy:

    Chemotherapy is one of the most common treatments of cancer. This includes introducing anticancer drugs in the body to halt the development of cancerous cells. In some cases, chemotherapy is required after the stem cell transplant.

  3. Radiation Therapy:

    Radiations are used to destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy can also be done for relieving pain relief of the patients. At times, radiation therapy is done before stem cell transplants.

Blood Cancer falls under the Hematology department. Dr. S.K Gupta at Hematology and BMT Institute International is one of the best hematologists in India. His expertise and knowledge in blood, bone marrow-related disorders are unmatched. He possesses experience of 15 years and believes timely diagnosis, proper guidance, and effective treatment are the foundations of the battle with blood cancer.

Hematology and BMT Institute International is well known in India. The team of experts specializes in hematology or blood-related diseases. The clinic is located in Hyderabad and envisions accessible and reliable medical treatments.

Tumor vs Cancer

Tumor Vs Cancer: Difference & Comparison

Cancer and Tumor

Cancer is a disease in which cells start to divide uncontrollably. Splitting of the cells can begin almost anywhere in the body and eventually lead to cancer. 

An unconstrained growth taking place in the solid tissues such as muscle, bone, and organs is a tumor. A tumor has the ability to outspread to surrounding organs and tissues through blood and lymph systems.

Abnormal cellular growth

Tumors and cancers are abnormal and rapid cellular growth that can happen anywhere in the body. In tumors, it can form a lump or lesion in the body or the surface, whereas in cancers the growth is unpredictable and can travel throughout the body. 

Types of tumors

Malignant tumor:

Malignant tumors are cancerous tumors. These tumors can cause secondary tumors by invading the surrounding tissues and by transporting them to other parts of the body as they grow. Malignant tumors can be life-threatening.

Benign tumor:

Benign tumors are noncancerous and do not travel through the body. Benign tumors are not life-threatening except for some brain anomalies which can cause inflammation and tension on the other parts of the body. 

Not all tumors are cancerous

It is safe to say that all tumors are not cancerous. Benign tumors are not cancerous because cell growth does not travel and spread through the vital organs of the body. Although malignant tumors can lead to cancer.

Similar to how all tumors are not cancerous, all cancers are not tumors. Blood cancer does not involve the growth of any tumor. Therefore, it is important to seek advice from a specialist. 

Treatment of Tumors vs. Cancer

Treatment and medication of tumors and cancer can differ depending on a number of factors. Medication and treatment are reliable on the patient’s age, the affected area, type of growth, and the speed of growth of cancer or tumor. It is significantly dependent on the stage of cancer and tumor as well. 

Since benign tumors are majorly not life-threatening, doctors can rely on the removal of tumors through surgery. Depending on the time and stage of the tumor, the recovery time can differ. Patients can recover right after surgery or it can even take months to heal.

Common treatment options for cancer patients are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. In the surgery, the affected growth is removed surgically. During chemotherapy powerful chemicals are used to get a significant effect on the cancerous cell. In radiation therapy, high-energy radiation is used to destroy or reduce the growth of cancer.

One of the treatment options that is being explored is Gene Therapy. In gene therapy, DNA is used as a pharmaceutical agent to treat the affected cells. 

Similar to cancer, Chemotherapy, and Radiation therapy are performed to treat blood cancer. In some cases, bone marrow transplant or stem cell transplant can also be preferred along with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Stem cell transplant and Bone marrow transplant can be used for the treatment of some non-cancerous tumors as well.

Dr. S.K Gupta at Hematology BMT Institute International, who is also one of the best hematologists in India, specializes in such cases. HBII is one of the best clinics in India specializing in Hematology and BMT. Located in Hyderabad, Hematology and BMT Institute International aims to provide the best healthcare to their patients. Hematology BMT Institute International aims to provide the best healthcare at an affordable cost.

Cancer in Women

Types of Cancers That Affect Women

This Women’s Day, we focus on women’s health & the ways we can improve it.

 

It has been proven that cancer affects women less frequently when compared to men. In recent trends, women have survived the disease more than men. Yet, one in every three women will be diagnosed with cancer at least once in their lifetime, according to the National Cancer Institute.

A number of cancers are specific to women. Ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer are just to name a few. The majority of women do not have knowledge about these cancers and hence are oblivious of the diseases that can be fatal to their lives. Knowledge and awareness about these life-threatening diseases is the first step to conquer the fight against cancer.

 

Ovarian Cancer:

Overview: Ovarian cancer derives its name from ovaries – a female organ that produces eggs for reproduction. The disease starts at the ovaries which can later spread to the rest of the body. This cancer usually goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and stomach. It is extremely fatal at this stage.

Who can get it: Ovarian cancer can occur at any stage of life but older women are more likely to get it. Women with a family history of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC or Lynch Syndrome), breast cancer, ovarian cancer are at an increased risk. However, women who do not fulfill any of these criteria can also get ovarian cancer.

When to see a doctor: Though there is no specific screening for ovarian cancer, women who have the following symptoms for more than a few weeks should get in touch with a medical oncologist.

Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer:

  1. Abdominal swelling with weight loss
  2. Digestive problems
  3. Pelvic/ Abdominal pain
  4. Need to urinate all the time.

Cervical Cancer:

Overview: A malignant tumor in the cervix – the lowermost part of the uterus is called cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause chronic infections which is one of the major risks that can lead to cervical cancer. 

Who can get it: All women are at risk of cervical cancer. However, women above the age of 30 are more susceptible to it.

When to see a doctor: In case you notice any of the below symptoms, it is advisable to visit the doctor.

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer:

  1. Bleeding in between menstruation cycles
  2. Bleeding after sexual intercourse. 

For preventing cervical cancer, it is suggested for women to get the complete dose of HPV vaccine shots. Hematology BMT Institute International vaccinates children and adults against HPV.  


Endometrial cancer

Overview: Cancer in the inner lining of the uterus or endometrium is known as endometrial cancer. 

Who can get it: As women get older the risk of the disease increases. Teens with early onset of periods, women with delayed menopause, and family history of infertility can multiply the risks. A family history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC or Lynch syndrome) is also add-on risks.

When to visit a doctor: See a doctor, if you notice any of the below symptoms, it is advisable to visit the doctor.


Symptoms of Endometrial Cancer:

  1. Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge.
  2. Vaginal discharge ranging from pink to thick, brown, water, and foul-smelling.
  3. Painful urination.
  4. An enlarged uterus, detectable during a pelvic exam.

Breast Cancer

Overview: The cancer of the breasts is known as breast cancer. 

Who can get it: It is the most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Although it can occur at any stage, the risks increase as women get older. Women with uterine myoma are more susceptible to breast cancer.

Women should go for regular screenings like mammograms and should generally know how their breasts look and feel. Any changes that are witnessed should be directly reported to the oncologists for early detection.

When to see a doctor: Women can perform a self-exam for checking breast cancer. If any of the following symptoms are seen, it is recommended to check with your doctor:

Symptoms of Breast Cancer:

  1. Dimpling, puckering, or bulging of the skin
  2. A nipple that has changed position or an inverted nipple (pushed inward instead of sticking out)
  3. Redness, soreness, rash, or swelling
  4. Lumps in your breasts

Due to the anatomy of a female body, women are more susceptible to a number of diseases, and when it comes to breast, endometrial, cervical, ovarian cancer, even more so. Regular screening and self-examination can save women the hassle of going through life-threatening medical conditions. 

Dr. S.K. Gupta, founder of Hematology BMT Institute International insists, “regular screening can avoid huge risks. Women should know that the most reliable way to detect  cancer early on is regular screening.” 

While all cancers cannot be prevented, we can surely focus on lowering the risks by taking necessary precautions and getting vaccinated. A cancer-free world is not a far-fetched dream with adequate cancer awareness and alertness. 

What is Preventive Care

Preventive Care

What is preventive care?

Preventive care is any medical care service that provides prevention from disease or reduces the probability of medical or health emergencies. It stands for taking preventive measures to protect oneself against an injury, disease, or illness before it becomes catastrophic or life-threatening. The goal of preventive care is to prevent genetic or acquired illness or disorders before the condition turns lethal. Preventive care measures can be applied at any point in life. So, it is valid across all lifespan and across the stages of diseases’ spectrum. The target of preventive care is to live a fit and healthy lifestyle.

Prevention Care is easy on pockets as it reduces the chances of the illness taking catastrophic turns. It avoids the dreadful visit to the ER. Preventive care lowers one’s healthcare costs by assessing and treating the disease in its early stage. 

Four out of five deaths are caused by chronic diseases. These deaths can be avoided or delayed if the patient has access to regular healthcare. 

Diseases that are preventable or manageable with timely preventive care are:

  • Chronic respiratory diseases
  • Heart Diseases
  • Cancer
  • Stroke
  • Diabetes 
  • High blood pressure
  • Cholesterol

Regular Health Check-Ups

To stay on top of your health, it is advisable to go for regular check-ups and screening. Regular health check-ups can diagnose a health problem before they become life-threatening or complicated. Annual checkups of the following are recommended to live a safe and fit lifestyle. 

  • Blood  pressure
  • Body Mass Index
  • Preventive Screening
  • Eyesight
  • Hearing

Apart from these, cancer screening for colorectal, skin, breast, cervical, and prostate should be performed on a regular basis to keep them in check. 

With Annual Screening, it is also necessary to stay updated with the latest vaccines and immunization. Everyone over six months should get flu vaccines. Always be sure that you have the following vaccine shots:

  • Influenza
  • Tetanus
  • Hepatitis A & B
  • Shingles
  • Meningococcal
  • Haemophilus Influenza Type B
  • Pneumococcal
  • Varicella
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)

Benefits of Regular Check-up

Regular check-ups reduce the risk of getting sick and increase your lifespan by detecting life-threatening diseases beforehand. It also helps in reducing healthcare costs over time. It also increases the chances of treatment and cure by maintaining a good relationship with healthcare officials.

In 2021, let us achieve a Fit India. Let us all eat healthily, stay fit, and take care of our health. Hematology BMT Institute International aims to prevent any genetic and acquired illnesses or disorders. With regular check-ups, we can detect diseases before the manifestation of symptoms. We all can live a safe and healthy lifestyle if we adhere to preventive care and regular check-ups. Let’s be #FitIndia2021.

Hematology BMT Institute International is a world-class medical institute in Hyderabad, India. Dr. S.K. Gupta, the founder of Hematology BMT Institute International, is a renowned hematologist and oncologist. He believes that early detection, timely treatment can save lives. 

Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome

30-month-old Girl Child Survives Hoyeraal Hreidarsson Syndrome

“Never lose hope, storms make people stronger and never last forever”- Roy T. Bennett. 

Meera’s (name changed) sufferings had no end. An 8-month premature girl born in Jan 2016, was admitted for 8 days in the hospital. She barely weighed 1.78 kgs. After six months, severe fever and rashes led to a 10 day-long hospitalization. Complete blood count (CBC) tests were performed to evaluate her health. In the CBC test, her platelets were exceedingly low.  Post Bone Marrow aspiration, Meera was diagnosed with Thrombocytopenia – abnormal low-levels of platelets. Eventually, the fever subsided and she was discharged. 

As Meera’s condition was not improving, parents consulted the family pediatrician and were suggested to transfer her to a corporate hospital in Hyderabad. Another CBC test was done. The platelet count was low – 50,000. They were advised to follow up once every month with CBC reports as no treatment was available. 

Meera’s condition was getting worse. She had a shocking weight loss after which the doctor recommended Bone Marrow Aspiration/ Biopsy for correct diagnosis. Diagnosed with Thrombocytopenia with Anemia, Meera’s parents were suggested to wait till her platelet dropped to 20,000.

In August 2017, Meera had a high fever and a severe case of Thrombocytopenia with Anemia. SDP platelets were transfused due to extremely low platelet count. Platelets/blood were transfused every month. It was a very hard time for the family. They could not watch their daughter’s suffering. Fortunately, Meera’s parents got in touch with AHIRAA donors on WhatsApp. A doctor at a corporate hospital referred Meera’s parents to Dr. S.K.Gupta for the possibility of a Bone Marrow Transplant

A doctor from the Genetic Department at a public hospital proposed a Genetic Test. The doctor advised them to go ahead with the Bone Marrow Transplant. The possibility of a BMT frightened Meera’s parents. With the risks involved and the finances, the chances of BMT looked bleak. Meera’s grandparents were afraid as no one gave a 100% guarantee of the procedure’s success. 

Meera’s parents contemplated and tried homeopathy medicine. 12 platelets transfusion and 8 blood transfusions were performed between Aug 2017-May 2018. During this period Meera had a high fever and caught infections.

The family finally consulted Dr. S.K.Gupta who explained the procedure and assured them that the BMT has a 70% success rate. 

The HLA match of the parents was negative. Both of them were half-matched. After the tests, the family was heartbroken. Dr. S.K.Gupta advised the HLA testing of Meera’s 16-month-old sister. The parents were panicking as they couldn’t process the thought of a 16-month-old baby donating stem cells. Dr.S.K.Gupta assured that the procedure will cause no harm to their younger daughter. The 16-month-old sister was a 100% HLA match. Meera’s family’s happiness knew no bounds. 

On 13 May 2018 Meera was admitted to the Hematology BMT Institute International located in Hyderabad. The parents were asked to arrange 5/5 donors for platelets and WBC. 

Chemotherapy began and lasted for a week. It was a difficult time for the family as both of their daughters were involved in the BMT. Stem Cells from Meera’s sister were collected and the procedure started. After 12-13 infusions, Meera showed positive signs. Unlike other transfusions that were performed in different hospitals; this time Meera showed no signs of fever or infections. No platelets or WBC were transfused during the 20-day hospitalization. Parents were delighted as they finally took a breath of relief.

According to Dr. S.K.Gupta, the initial 6 months- 1 year period is crucial after BMT. The patients might need re-admission. After 45 days of the procedure, Meera had a severe infection and her platelets dropped to 40K-50K. She recovered quickly. It’s been six months now and she has been doing great.

Meera was suffering from Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome which was diagnosed by the team at Hematology BMT Institute International. 

What is Hoyeraal Hreidarsson Syndrome?

Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome is a rare disease that is even more critical and complicated than cancer. It is an extremely rare multisystem X-linked recessive disorder.

Meera’s parents hold Dr. S.K.Gupta and the team at HBII in high regard. Parents were apprehensive about the cost of the BMT as they came across hospitals that charged an enormous amount. A government employee at a police department could only dream of saving his child with a BMT procedure. 

Dr. S.K.Gupta, the founder of Hematology BMT Institute International believes that every life is worth saving. Hematology BMT Institute International advocated no unnecessary admissions, medications, and blood transfusions. Promoting affordable healthcare and superior quality, Hematology BMT Institute International is making procedures like BMT more accessible to the needy.

 

World Cancer Day

The World Against Cancer

4th February is marked as World Cancer Day. World Cancer day targets the awareness, prevention, and treatment of cancer, led by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). The day’s primary goal is to show support to cancer-victims, survivors and reduce stigma. 

2021 marks the end of the “I am and I will” initiative to counter false information and counter negative attitudes towards the victim. The campaign’s goal is to debunk the myth that nothing can be done about cancer. The initiative explores how personal growth, individual actions can collectively impact the fatalistic belief.

 

What is cancer?

Cancer is a disease in which uncontrollable cell growth becomes fatal. It has the potential to grow and invade other parts of the body. Cancer is also known as a malignant tumor. 

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world, next to cardiovascular diseases. Globally speaking, one in every six deaths is caused by cancer. According to WHO, cancer was responsible for a whopping 9.6 million deaths in 2018.

In India, the estimated number of cases by 2025 is 15.7 lakhs being more prevalent in women. India witnessed 784,800 cancer deaths in 2018 and 1.16 million new cancer cases. 

According to WHO, some of the cancers are the most common. Lung cancer, Breast cancer, Colorectal cancer, Prostate cancer, Skin cancer, and Stomach cancer tops the list. 

Lung cancer, Colorectal cancer, Stomach cancer, Liver cancer, and Breast cancer are the most fatal and cause the maximum number of deaths.

 

Causes of Cancer

Cancer can be a genetic problem, but various external factors can lead to malignant tumors’ development. Consumption of tobacco leads to approximately 22% percent of cancer deaths.

External factors such as ionizing radiation, carcinogenic foods, biological carcinogens, electromagnetic fields, and high BMI are responsible for most cancer cases. 

In low and middle-income countries, hepatitis and human papillomavirus (HPV)– cancer-causing infections are responsible for 25% of the cancer cases. 

 

Cancer Precautions

Avoiding risk-based factors can bring down the cancer cases by 30-50%. Key risk factors such as consumption of carcinogenic food (red meat, processed food, alcohol, etc.), tobacco, obesity, alcohol, and unhealthy diets can be avoided and can bring down many cancer cases caused by external factors. Vaccination against HPV and hepatitis B virus is an equally important factor in fighting cancer. Avoiding occupational hazards, exposure to ultraviolet and ionizing radiation is easy and can significantly change the world’s cancer scenario. 

Some of the cancers can be prevented by vaccination. Cervical cancer is one of them. Vaccination of cervical cancer is readily available across India. Hematology BMT Institute International vaccinates women against the cancer of the cervix.

 

 

Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

Early detection and treatment can save lives. PAP smears for cervical cancer, mammography for breast cancer are some of the screenings done once a year to know any abnormal developments.

Dr. S.K Gupta, the founder of Hematology BMT Institute International, says “Cancer is a word, not a sentence. You can be a victim of cancer or a survivor of cancer. It’s a mindset.” He believes that timely diagnosis can save hundreds of lives from cancer. In his 15 years of experience, he witnessed several cases where early diagnosis could decrease cancer chances. 

In 2021, Hematology BMT Institute International aims to achieve #FitIndia2021. A year to concentrate on oneself, reflect on our health and lifestyle. With #FitIndia2021, Hematology BMT Institute International promotes the prevention of diseases, identification through timely diagnosis and regular tests. #FitIndia2021 embarks the beginning of a healthy and safe lifestyle for everyone. 

Multiple Sclerosis and Its Effects

Multiple Sclerosis and Its Effects

What is Multiple Sclerosis?

Many people would be unaware of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and its effects. Multiple Sclerosis or MS is a long-lasting disease that can affect your brain, spinal cord, and the optic nerves in your eyes. Vision, balance, muscle control, and other essential bodily functions can be impaired under MS. For everyone who has this disorder or disease, the effects are often different. Some people don’t need treatment because they have mild symptoms while others are going to have trouble getting around and doing daily chores. The cause of MS is still unknown, but we know that the Myelin Sheath in the Central Nervous System (CNS), which covers around the nerve fibers, gets affected. For the transmission of nerve impulses through nerve fibers, Myelin is necessary. If Myelin damage is slight, nerve impulses travel with a small number of disruptions; however, if the damage is massive and if the Myelin is replaced by scar tissue, the nerve impulses may be completely interrupted, and the nerve fibers themselves may be damaged.

The term “Multiple Sclerosis” is derived from this process, as it occurs in several places in the nervous system, and Sclerosis (scars) – the hardened patches of scar tissue – forms over the damaged Myelin.

MS varies significantly from individual to individual, and in the severity and the course of the disease. Your doctor cannot predict at the time of diagnosis what course the illness might take and how you will be affected in the next five or ten years. Fortunately, there are specific relapsing treatments — MS remittance — and some may be helpful for people who are still having relapses with secondary-progressive MS. Moreover, as they arise, much can be done to treat specific symptoms.

Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis

Symptoms such as extreme fatigue, lack of coordination, weakness, tingling, sensation impairment, vision problems, bladder problems, cognitive impairment, and mood changes can be caused by Multiple Sclerosis. Remember that while many different symptoms can be experienced in MS, all of the symptoms listed are highly unlikely to be experienced.


Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis

Diagnosing MS can be difficult, as its symptoms can be the same as many other nerve disorders. If your doctor is in doubt, he’ll want you to see a specialist called a neurologist, who treats the brain and nervous system. The doctor will ask you about your medical history and will check your brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves for key signs of nerve damage.

There is no single test that can prove you have MS. While checking, your doctor will use a couple of different tests like:

  • Blood tests to rule out diseases that cause similar symptoms, such as Lyme disease and AIDS   
  • Tests to see how well your nerves are working, check your balance, coordination, vision, and other functions. 
  • A test called an MRI that produces detailed images of the structures in your body.
  • Analysis of a liquid called Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) that cushions your brain and spinal cord. In CSF, people with MS usually have particular proteins. 
  • Tests that measure the electrical activity in your brain (called Evoked Potential). 
  • OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography) is used to identify changes in the retina that may warn of atrophy of the brain.


Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis

Right now, there seems to be no cure for Multiple Sclerosis, but an autologous stem transplant can be a favorable treatment. Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) or autonomous bone marrow transplant can provide progression-free survival in MS (Multiple Sclerosis) for a long period of time.  In Autologous Stem Cell Transplant, healthy blood stem cells are extracted from the body to treat or replace the diseased/damaged bone marrow. It offers an edge over stem cells from donors as it avoids the possibility of incompatibility between the donor’s and receiver’s blood stem cells. 

Dr. S.K. Gupta is a renowned Hematologist who has experience in treating blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen disorders. He strongly believes that, even in life-threatening disorders, early diagnosis, proper guidance, and support are the cornerstones of fruitful results. Adequate monitoring of the condition of the patient, improving the morale of both the patient and the family, are vital steps in reducing morbidity and mortality during treatment, which he and his strong support team take care of at a personal level. At the same time, he runs several awareness camps in the community for all the patients and training sessions for his staff.  Looking for a hospital for Multiple Sclerosis?
Look no further, Hematology and BMT Institute International is your solution to all blood-related and non-blood-related diseases. 

Haploidentical bone marrow transplant

What is Haploidentical bone marrow transplant?

A haploidentical bone marrow transplant is performed when the donor exactly matches half of the recipient’s DNA. Haploidentical bone marrow transplant is a type of allogeneic transplant. In an allogeneic transplant, the cells from donors are transplanted in the recipient to suppress the disease-causing cells or elements and restore the immune system of the patient. The key to a successful allogeneic transplant is finding the right donor. In most cases, the donors are the blood relatives of the patient. The match is proved through tissue typing. Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)  are the proteins that are used for tissue typing. These proteins are present in white blood cells and tissues. HLA is present almost all over the body. Donors closely matching your HLA or umbilical cord blood can be transplanted. Healthy, blood-forming cells from a half-matched donor are transplanted to replace the unhealthy ones of the recipient. This is a Haploidentical bone marrow transplant. The donor is typically a family member in Haploidentical bone marrow transplant.  The donor matches exactly half of the HLA of the donor. 

Who can be a haploidentical donor?

The patient’s mother, father, or offspring are half-matched or haploidentical donors. Siblings have a 50% chance of being haploidentical for each other. Parents are always haploidentical to their children. It is highly unlikely for uncles, aunts, and cousins to be half-match of the patient. 

Benefits of a haploidentical bone marrow transplant

For patients suffering from rare disorders, haploidentical stem cell transplants are a blessing. It is a boon especially for patients suffering from blood disorders that do not have any cure yet. Since this medical procedure does not need a complete HLA match of the donor’s tissue, it is a treatment option for 70% of the patients suffering from rare and complex disorders. Haploidentical bone marrow transplant gives a chance to live for the patients who do not have an HLA-identical sibling donor. 

A half-match donor saves a lot of hassle for the family and doctors. It avoids the need to find an alternative donor who is unrelated to the patient. It also expands the donor pool who are not a complete match for the receiver. 

In a bone marrow transplant, the patient’s immune system is wiped out so that the immune system does not reject the donated marrow. It is done to avoid the host -versus- graft effect as the response of the donor immune system can harm the new immune system during the marrow transplant. In haploidentical bone marrow transplant, the bone marrow suppresses the immune system instead of wiping it out. It is viable to perform this procedure on children with benign hematologic disorders if no donors are available with engraftment rates of 70%, durable graft in 67%. The overall survival of haploidentical bone marrow transplant is 60%.

It is generally assumed that the side-effects of a haploidentical transplant are higher than a full-matched transplant if the procedure is performed in a busy institute. In Hematology and BMT Institute International every procedure is performed with precision and patients are given utmost care. Dr. S.K Gupta, the founder of Hematology and BMT Institute International has 15 years of experience and is an expert in Haploidentical bone marrow transplant. He started his medical career as a nursing student and has been trained at various reputed & prestigious healthcare Institutions in India.

If you are looking for a medical institute that provides quality healthcare with utmost dedication and care, head to Hematology and BMT Institute International in Hyderabad. It is one of the most advanced and efficient healthcare centers in India. 

 

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